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I hope, how- ever, on another occasion to treat of the value of the Talmud as a source for Jewish history, and then I shall have occasion to discuss these Scholia. in Josephus ; The Era of the Olympiad in Josephus ; The Chronologies of the Hasmonean Dynasty, the Herodean Dynasty, and in the New Testament. Neuman for their kindness in reading through my manuscript, and helping me put it into idiomatic English. That the Mishnah was written down can be seen from the expression which the Amoraim employed when emending a passage in the Mishnah, viz. 23 When, therefore, the Jews adopted the calendar of the Seleucidean era, they moulded it to their view-point ; that is to say, the New Year date was retained as the first of Tishri, but Tishri 312 B.
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I hope to have occasion to deal again with certain data, mentioned in the Megillah in another connexion. Cyrus Adler, President of the Dropsie College, and to Prof. Manv valuable sucreestions have been given me by my friends, Professors Louis Ginzbcrg, Henry Malter, and Alexander Marx. I wish to call attention here to a highly interesting variant which I found in a manuscript copy of the Tractate Abodah zarah (Spain, 1291) in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 300-16, thinks that many cities counted their years from October 313, and so likewise Porphyry reckoned the years of Olympiads — not from the month of July 776 B.
I greatly regret that at the present stage I cannot publish the x PREFA( l Appendices, as I had expected, but I hope they will appear in a separate volume under the following heads: Fasti Judaici, from 170 B. This book I dedicate in memory of one of my earliest teachers, whose great enthusiasm for Jewish scholarship has been an influence in my life. For lr U'D'Tit' in the printed edition, the manuscript reads K»3TU VOTOD KST1 (ir WD*C&) (Ab. That the Mishnah was written down even before the time of Rabbi, I hope to demonstrate fully in a work on the History of the Oral Law. was connected with the victories of the Jews over the Syrians in the Hasmonean period and over the Roman armies in the beginning of the ' War of Vespasian '. According to Droysen, Geschichte des Hel- lenisnxus, III, pp. C., which was the first Olympiad, but from Dius 777 B.
They even fasted on Hanukkah (Rosh ha-Shanah 18 b). However, these semi-holidays were not formally abrogated by the rabbis. 18 All the cities in the countries around the Holy Land adopted the year of the battle, which established the rule of the Seleucids as a new era, but fixed the beginning of the year according to the traditional New Year season which prevailed in the respective countries.
And this is in agreement with the statement of Rabbi Jose : ' Since the Temple is laid waste it is permissible to fast on the festive days which are enumerated in this Scroll' ? They gradually disappeared from the practices of the people, and this led to the dis- cussion between Rab and Hanina, and their colleagues R. Joshua ben Levi, as to whether the Yamim Tobim in the ' Megillah ' are abrogated. E., 17 and the eleventh year closed, then, in the latter part of May or June 312 B. For instance, in Damascus they counted the years of the Seleucid era from the spring of 312 B. E., as can be seen by their coins ; 19 while other cities counted their era from Hyperberetaeus or from Dius.